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Although there is a large variation between donors, it is capable of producing over 50 calves per donor cow per year if the two technologies-OPU and IVF are combined. Brazil dominated the IVP production by performing 53,019 OPU sessions averaging 15 oocytes and 6 embryos per session. There are many embryo technology companies in Brazil, who are specializing in the production of in vitro embryos, embryo transfer or embryorelated technologies training to farmers or people related. This kind of companies or groups also exists in US, Canada, Italy, et al.
Application of exogenous hormones disturbs donor’s endocrine, especially when exogenous hormones are used to the donor for a long time, which might lead to infertility of the donor. Moreover, donor’s responses to hormone stimulation are different, even the same donor shows different responses in different sessions, which leads to variation of the results. As a result, it is better to use hormones to the donor in a short period and leave a period of regulation and recovery to the endocrine system. The interval from trigger to oocyte pickup (OPU) is the period of in vivo oocyte maturation that has a predominant effect on assisted reproductive technology success.
While in most once-a-week collections, a dominant follicle develops at the successive collection, which causes the regression and degeneration of the subordinate follicles. In a result, oocytes collected by this scheme are relatively less in a given time interval. On a per cow per session basis, there was no difference between ‘OPU 1/w’ and ‘OPU 2/w’ protocols in terms of the average number of follicles aspirated, oocytes syscoin price prediction retrieved and blastocysts produced on Day 7. While on a weekly basis, those three indexes were significantly higher in the ‘OPU 2/w’ protocol than those in the ‘OPU 1/w’ . Moreover, as it does not interfere with the normal reproduction cycles of the donor, there were no any longterm detrimental effects on the donor cow’s fertility even after twice-aweek OPU for over a year performed by experienced operators.
I am doing OPU in cattle and routinely we produce IVP embryos in livestock for practical and research purposes, it would be great if I could receive your comments regarding to the problems we faced during OPU. In deed, how we can minimize the bleeding and to prevent the entrance of blood into the aspiration tube at the time of OPU. OPU together with IVF has been taken as another challenge to the animal reproduction.
Therefore, the exploration of the optimal interval of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols would benefit clinic outcomes. The first In vitro Produced (IVP) calf was born in 1981 . Both OPU and IVF could be seen as mature technologies in the current world. The total number of transferable IVP bovine embryos worldwide was 453,471 in 2011 , which included OPU embryos and abattoir embryos.
Comparison of ultrasound-guided vs laparoscopic transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) in simmental heifers.
The hMG and progestin are administrated together from menstrual cycle days 2–5 onward in our PPOS protocol , which brought the hypothalamic suppression at the beginning of ovarian hyperstimulation. The LH values gradually decrease during ovarian stimulation, and the average LH level on the trigger day is significantly lower than the basal LH value, which indicates that the PPOS protocol could powerfully suppress the preovulatory LH surge. This potent hypothalamic suppression and consequent inhibition of LH level may be an important factor in prolonging the ovulation trigger–OPU interval in the PPOS protocol compared with other protocols, such as natural cycles or mild stimulation protocols. Furthermore, a high progesterone level from menstruation cycle day 3 onward may also influence the follicles. Progesterone inhibits membrane-bound adenylate cyclase, the activity of which may require more time to recover after the trigger , which may explain why the lower mature oocyte rate was observed in group 1.
Recovery rates were 35% (Variant I), 57% (Variant II), 72% (Variant III), and 67% (Variant IV). After evaluation, 94% (both Variant I and II), 93% (Variant III), and 84% (Variant IV) of the oocytes were qualified for in vitro maturation.
For IVF, fertilization was conducted after 4–6 h and the maturity was examined the day after the retrieval day. For ICSI, oocytes were usually preincubated for 2–3 h and then denuded and examined for maturity.
Therefore, well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to verify our finding in future research. Moreover, the marginal interval should be accessed in future RCTs to reduce bias.
The limitation of using the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (L-OPU) method in goat and sheep is its changing effectiveness and the lack of repeatability of results, as well as the varying effectiveness of different variants of the method. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective non-invasive techniques allowing for multiple good quality oocyte recovery https://cryptolisting.org/coin/chan/ that would be suitable for in vitro maturation and fertilization. In this study, four different L-OPU variants were described in goats and sheep. Various techniques of recovering oocytes were discussed, including the techniques of conducting the operation, various tools for recovering oocytes, and different plans of hormonal stimulation.
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The main process of OPU includes epidural anaesthesia, ovary positioning per rectum, follicle visualizing by the transvaginal transducer, oocyte aspiration by needle. There are two major OPU systems including non stimulation and pre-stimulation procedure.
While under so many years development, OPU has been considered as a mature what is opu technology. No many breakthroughs might happen to this technology.
Follicles growing in both ovaries are aspirated by a needle with trans-vaginal ultrasonographic guidance. Following OPU, our patients rest at our center for minutes, thereafter they go home.
- The technique of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for ovum pick-up (OPU), is a non-invasive procedure for recovering oocytes from antral follicles in live animals.
- It was developed in the human to assist human infertility.
- When people realized its application prospect, considerable researches have been aimed at applying this technology in the bovine.
- Unlike MOET, OPU does not interfere with the normal reproduction and production cycles of the donor.
- Together with in vitro fertilization of oocytes, OPU has been taken as a most flexible and repeatable technique to produce embryos from any given live donor.
- In 1987, an ultrasonic-guided aspiration of bovine follicular oocytes was first proposed in Denmark and in 1988; a real OPU was first established in cattle by a Dutch team .
As the name implies, the difference is whether the donor will be stimulated with hormone prior to OPU. Since 2013, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been an effective oral alternative for preventing a premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in women undergoing COH, termed the progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocol (6–9).
Before scheduling an OPU appointment, the ovaries of the mare are assessed at home to determine if she is a suitable candidate. The ideal OPU candidate has a minimum of 15 follicles with a diameter less than 1cm. If there are not enough follicles present during this scan, the ovaries are reassessed 2-3 weeks later to allow enough time for follicular growth. The PPOS protocol has a relatively longer time period in which to achieve high mature oocyte rates, implantation rates, and live birth rates among three ovulation trigger–OPU interval groups (Table 3).
A new COH protocol, PPOS has proven effective for patients with a normal response, diminished ovarian reserve, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and high body mass index (BMI) . It has a different mechanism, hypothalamic action, to prohibit the premature LH surge than other COH protocols . The different follicular hormonal environment in the PPOS protocol may lead to a diversity of cytokines in the follicular fluid, which may influence the optimal trigger–OPU interval . OPU procedure is performed under light general anesthesia and it lasts 10 to 15 minutes.
This interval is crucial because a number of indispensable processes including the start of luteinization, the expansion of the cumulus cells, and the resumption of the reduction division of the oocyte should be well-established before aspiration . Some studies have found that a longer interval to OPU may produce more mature oocytes or achieve a higher fertilization rate . Some studies have shown that prolonging the interval between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) priming and oocyte retrieval could increase the proportion of MII oocytes but not pregnancy rates .
After another 2 h, the immature oocytes were examined again and all of the mature oocytes were injected . After FSH stimulation, a higher number of oocytes were recovered (there was no statistically significant difference) with higher quality ovular cells in comparison to PMSG stimulation.
Modified natural cycle or hormone replacement treatment was performed according to individual conditions . Briefly, a modified natural cycle was recommended for patients with a regular menstrual cycle using hCG 5000 IU (Lizhu Pharmaceutical Trading Co.) as the trigger. Artificial cycles were applied in those patients with irregular menstrual cycles or a history of abnormal uterine bleeding. The aspirated oocytes were transferred to the embryology laboratory in a modified HTF medium (Irvine Scientific, USA) and transferred to a culture medium. Fertilization was performed via IVF or ICSI depending on semen parameters .
The laparoscopic method of recovering oocytes in goats and sheep is one of the minimally invasive methods used in the biotechnology of animal reproduction. It allows for good quality oocytes that are suitable for in vitro maturation and fertilization to be recovered.
The method allows for a fast and effective conduct of the operation in a living donor with minimal invasiveness while preserving the excellent condition of animals. Ovum Pick Up (OPU), also known as oocyte aspiration or oocyte collection is the procedure where oocytes (eggs) are collected by aspirating the follicular fluid. The OPU procedure is performed on the standing mare after sedation and administration of an epidural anaesthesia. OPU does not require hospital admission of the mare.
Together with in vitro fertilization of oocytes, OPU has been taken as a most flexible and repeatable technique to produce embryos from any given live donor. Unlike MOET, OPU does not interfere with the normal reproduction and production cycles of the donor. Any female starting from 6 months of age to the third month of pregnancy and even soon after calving (2-3 weeks) could be a suitable donor. It has been shown to be a feasible and practical alternative to the conventional multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) program , and it is being more and more used for commercial applications in the world . The original OPU procedure includes no hormone stimulation.
The technique of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for ovum pick-up (OPU), is a non-invasive procedure for recovering oocytes from antral follicles in live animals. It was developed in the human to assist human infertility. When people realized its application prospect, considerable researches have been aimed at applying this technology in the bovine. In 1987, an ultrasonic-guided aspiration of bovine follicular oocytes was first proposed in Denmark and in 1988; a real OPU was first established in cattle by a Dutch team .
The earlier release of PGF2alfa was also observed in a case of occurrence of large follicles. In goats stimulated with PMSG, two atypical forms of corpus luteum were also observed. These were corpus rubrum (CH, corpus hemorrhagicum), which is present as a consequence of prolonged ovulation, and corpus luteum, prematurely regressing (at an early luteal phase) as a consequence of premature release of prostaglandin (PGF2alfa) .
The follicles, each containing a single oocyte are therefore visualised by inserting an ultrasound probe, equipped with a needle guide, into the vagina. The ovary is then grasped via the rectum and held against the vaginal wall. The fluid of each follicle 1cm is aspirated https://cryptolisting.org/ and subsequently flushed several times to enhance oocyte recovery. After aspiration of all the follicles, the recovered fluid is filtered in analogy with the recovered fluid after an embryo flush. This fluid is then searched for the presence of the oocytes (figure 1).
The main development in the OPU research is the hormone involved. The advantages of super-stimulation prior to OPU seem obvious—more follicles to puncture, more oocytes retrieved and more embryos, and less work as compared to non-super stimulated OPU. While those indexes were similar to those in twice-a-week procedure when calculated on a per cow per week basis . In order to improve the numbers of aspirated follicles, oocytes and IVF embryos, different hormone procedures have been tried and it has made some considerable gains . In spite of all cited improvements above, the hormonestimulated OPU has some unsolved key problems.
The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature without randomization. Second, we mainly focused on patients with similar ovarian reserves and responses (Table 2), which represents only a portion of infertility patients. This optimal trigger–OPU interval in the PPOS protocol may be not suitable for poor ovarian response, PCOS, or other peculiar patients. Third, there were three types of ovulation trigger methods in our center, but the proportion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or hCG trigger was very small. We occasionally use GnRH agonists in patients with a higher possibility of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome as well as hCG in patients with a very low LH level during COH as they might not reactive to the GnRH agonist trigger.
Since OPU is done under light general anesthesia, it is best for the patient not to work that day, although not mandatory. Some patients may feel short-lasting and mild lower abdominal, pelvic or back pain following the procedure; in such cases, painkillers such as paracetamol (Parol/Vermidone) might be taken. Following OPU, some of the patients might also experience some light vaginal bleeding or spotting as is the last days of menstruation. Unfortunately, oocytes by themselves are too small ( mm) to visualise via ultrasound.
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These results are comparable to the results obtained by other authors, more high-quality oocytes suitable for IVM/IVF were recovered after FSH stimulation . In goats, after PMSG stimulation, the high number of large, non-ovulated follicles was observed, as well as a shortening of the estrus cycle and premature estrus. These phenomena result from the insufficiency of the large ovarian follicles as a response to the initial preovulatory increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) and high level of estrogen released from the unovulated follicle .